The possible effects of increased fuel efficiency on the economy are wide ranging and complex. Fuel Efficiency and the Economy is a well written and understandable overview. It contains an input-output analysis showing how proposed changes to automotive fuel-efficiency standards would propagate through the national economy. Of particular interest is Figure 3, which shows a range of current and near future technologies giving for each one a band of estimated fuel economy improvements and possible increases in retail cost. Also of interest is Figure 2, which demonstrates how since the 80's Detroit has been putting increases in engine efficiency into achieving shorter and shorter 0 to 60 times for heavier and heavier vehicles instead of using fewer gallons per hundred miles.